As expected, among Republicans, listening to McCain induced a bolstering mind-set, and listening to Obama induced a counterarguing mind-set, whereas the reverse was true for Democrats. More important, these mind-sets carried over to how people responded to the Toyota materials by varying their tendency to agree or disagree, resulting in different evaluations of the brand. Spillover effects of mind-sets are expected when the procedures activated by previous goal-directed activities facilitate goal pursuit on a subsequent task.
Conversely, interference effects of mind-sets are expected when the activated procedures are incompatible with the procedures that would facilitate goal pursuit on a subsequent task. Supporting evidence has been observed in several different areas of research. Verbal information is typically encoded in terms of semantic concepts, and pictorial information is typically encoded in terms of visual images. When people process a human face, visual processing dominates.
Consistent with the logic of behavioral mind-sets, Dodson, Johnson, and Schooler , Study 3 found that this interference effect was not limited to the face that participants were asked to describe. Instead, having described one face also impaired later recognition of another face, for which no description was required. Presumably, the verbal routine rendered accessible by describing the first face was applied to other faces, thus impairing encoding and recognition of all faces. In the domain of problem solving, Moreau and Engeset found that solving well-defined problems can impair performance on solving subsequent ill-defined problems.
Well-defined problems are characterized by a clearly specified initial problem state, a known goal state, and a known set of processes that can be used to achieve the goal state e. For ill-defined problems, the initial problem state is open to interpretation, the cognitive strategies needed to generate solutions are uncertain, and the goal state is not specified e.
Solving well-defined problems can active a convergent-thinking mind-set, which interferes with the divergent processing required to solve ill-defined creative problems, resulting in poorer performance. Activating a behavioral mind-set may also interfere with emotional processing in decision making. Testing this possibility in the domain of ethical behavior, Wang, Zhong, and Murnighan activated a cognition-based calculative mind-set by asking participants to work on a series of GRE math problems vs. GRE verbal problems; Study 4.
Importantly, only Player 1 knew the value of the endowment. In the studies reviewed above, behavior in one domain influenced subsequent behavior in an unrelated domain by facilitating or impairing the accessibility of an applicable procedure. Whereas these effects are cognitive in nature, other streams of research showed that motivations evoked in one domain can influence motivated behavior in another domain. Such motivational spillovers are limited to domains that can satisfy the underlying motive here, a motive for hedonic rewards and are not observed in domains that are irrelevant to the motive Wadhwa et al.
Domain-specific motivations e. Such motivational effects are reflected in changes in desire and liking as well as willingness to pay, and individuals may or may not follow through on these desires. Against this background, research into behavioral mind-sets raises an intriguing possibility: A domain-specific motivation say, hunger may motivate a domain-specific behavior eat food that entails procedures acquire food for consumption that are applicable beyond the specific domain acquire products in general , which may result in spillover effects that are not suitable to satisfy the motive e.
Xu, Schwarz, and Wyer explored this possibility by testing whether hungry people are more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger, such as a set of binder clips. This distinguishes spillover effects driven by behavioral mind-sets from motivational spillovers, which are accompanied by changes in valuation e. Xu and colleagues , Study 1 first tested whether hunger indeed increases the accessibility of general acquisition concepts.
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Participants were shown 22 words and 22 nonwords, flashed one at a time on a computer screen for 50 ms each. As expected, hungrier participants were more likely to recognize both hunger-related and acquisition-related words, indicating that hunger increased the accessibility of both concepts. More importantly, the hunger-induced acquisition mind-set had behavioral consequences.
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In one study, participants were asked not to eat for 4 hr prior to participating in a food test. On arrival in the lab, some participants first examined binder clips, decided how many they wanted to take, and then reported their evaluation of the binder clips before proceeding to a cake taste test. Other participants first completed a cake taste test that provided enough food to satisfy their hunger before they examined binder clips.
Hungry as well as satiated participants did not evaluate the binder clips as particularly attractive and, more importantly, did not differ in their evaluations. Three additional studies replicated this observation, showing that hunger increases the acquisition of nonfood items without increasing liking of these items. The studies reviewed here shed light on how cognitive or motor activities in one situation may activate a behavioral mind-set, which subsequently affects behavior in a different, unrelated domain.
Such spillover effects occur when situation-specific procedures used to achieve goals increase the accessibility of the general procedure they instantiate, which, in turn, is reapplied in later situations. A given behavioral mind-set may have either a positive effect, if the activated procedure facilitates subsequent goal pursuit, or a negative effect, if it interferes with the optimal procedure that should be used.
Moreover, a behavioral mind-set can be triggered by either actual utilization of the procedure or the motivation to use the procedure. In the studies reviewed here, a behavioral mind-set became accessible because a cognitive or motor procedure had been activated recently, either through past behavior or through preparation for future goal pursuit. Although a behavioral mind-set is usually activated during goal pursuit, it can be reapplied independently of the goal that initially activated it. Future research may fruitfully address strategies that can curb spillover effects, reducing the unintended impact of past activities.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author s declared that there were no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship or the publication of this article. Skip to main content. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Article Menu. Download PDF.
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Brendl, C. We took the nice, simple, easy stuff first from Australia, we took it from the United States, we went to South America and we dug it out of the ground there. Now we have to go to more remote [and unstable] places [in Africa]. One key contributor in meeting the objective of linking the commodities boom to development is the promotion of linkages between the commodities sector and domestic industrial and service sectors.
Traditionally, this policy agenda has tended to be confined to the development of downstream forward linkages, processing and then beneficiating the commodities once they have been extracted.
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However, these are not the only types of linkages that can be developed. There are manifold opportunities for the development of upstream backward linkages, feeding inputs into the resource sector. Moreover, beyond the first stages of backward and forward linkages, there is also scope for the development of horizontal linkages which feed inputs into other sectors for example, basic metal fabrication industries.
While initially directly linked to the resource sector, these horizontal linkages potentially have application in other sectors.
There is a widespread belief in policy circles that these production linkages are weak and hold little potential in the future, in part because of the enclave mentality of major resource-producing firms. The tendency of resource-producing firms to act in isolation from the rest of the economy may have been a historical reality.
But, the modern firm increasingly seeks to concentrate on its core competences and to outsource everything else to other firms. If these other firms are proximate to resource extraction and can provide low-cost and quality inputs reliably, or process commodities effectively, this is in the direct interest of the resource-extracting firm. Thus, far from the lead commodity firms obstructing local linkage development, it is now increasingly one of their primary objectives. Not much is known about the extent and determinants of these linkages into and out of the resource sector in SSA.
For this reason, a group of 15 researchers, largely of African origin, devoted 2 years to an analysis of linkage development in 8 economies—Angola, Botswana, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia. They examined a variety of sectors, including oil pipelines, oil services, diamonds, copper, timber, gold, mining equipment, construction and infrastructure.
One of their most important findings was a surprising degree of linkage development in each of these economies, and that the market played an important role in diffusion. Lead resource companies are increasingly happy to outsource non-core activities see Figure. These linkage developments include the well-developed mining equipment supply industry in South Africa, knowledge-intensive indigenously-owned supplier firms in Nigeria, undersea-pipeline fabrication in Angola and diamond cutting and polishing firms in Botswana.
The first was the growth in outsourcing by the lead commodity-producing firms. In most cases, this was spurred by their desire to focus on their core competences and, in other cases, by the promotion of corporate social responsibility CSR programmes.